Chemistry 11 Ms. Chen
What is organic chemistry anyway?.....
introduction to the diverse chemistry of carbon
scientific study of the structure of carbon-based compounds and hydrocarbon
can vary from small to large
has a specific naming system
different kinds of structures to represent a molecular formula
form chains of carbon atoms
A carbon that has 4 bonds
A carbon atom that has 4 hydrogen atoms
A carbon-carbon bond
There are certain names for each molecular formula!
1 - meth
2 - eth
3 - prop
4 - but
5 - pent
6 - hex
7 - hept
8 - oct
9 - non
10 - dec
You use these prefixes in the beginning and the endings for alkanes is “-ane.”
The formula is CnH2n+2, if you plug in the numbers and it doesn’t work then that means that it is not from the alkane group!
When looking at the structures: Always look at the longest chain and write the molecular formula from there!
It is called Propane because there are three of the longest chain.
For the Alkayl group, they have a different formula and different naming system:
The ending is “-yl,” so an example would be methyl.
This structure is called 3-methyl-pentane because the bond is on the third position and it is called methyl because it is from the alkyl group. It is called pentane because the longest chain has 5 of them.
Extra facts: The sum of all valence e- of each atom in the molecular formula must equal the number of electrons in your Lewis Dot Structure.
Except for a few elements, ex. H, most elements want a full valence shell.