Monday, June 6, 2011

Functional Groups!! (by Bev)

What are functional groups?

-organic compounds that are comprised elements other than carbon or hydrogen (ex. nitrogen & oxygen)
-tend to be the most reactive part of the molecule

types of functional groups: alcohols, halides, aldehydes, ketones

Halides & Nitro Compounds

-naming: close to that of simple hydrocarbons - can be fixed to alkanes, alkenes, & alkynes (end w/-ANE)
           -if there is more than 1 of the SAME halogen/molecule attached to 1 molecule, add the prefix di, tri, tetra, penta, etc. before the halogen/molecule prefix
            -if there are DIFFERENT halogens/molecules attached to 1 molecule, list the positions in alphabetical order

(ex. 2,4,4-tribromo-5-chlorononane)

-the main chain name obtains one of these prefixes that are fixed to it

Halogens
Molecules
F
Fluoro
NO2
Nitro
Cl
Chloro
Br
Bromo
I
Iodo

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/imgorg/cform.gif
Ex. 1 (top left):
# of carbon atoms: 1 à methane
# of halogens: 3 Cl in the first carbon position à tricloro

Ex. 2 (top right):
# of carbon atoms: 1 à methane
# of halogens: 4 Cl in the first carbon position à tetrachloro

Ex. 3 (below):
File:Chloroethane-skeletal.png
***Note: each empty corner represents ONE carbon atom, thus there are 2 carbons in this molecule! :D
2 carbons = ethane
1 Cl attached in the first carbon position (recall: there isn’t a set direction in which to count the position that the carbon is in; count from the whichever way creates a smaller #, in this case, from left to right)
This compound is called 1-chloroethane or simply chloroethane.
Properties of Halides
-tend to be insoluble in H2O
-compounds combined with fluorine are non-reactive (inert)
                Ex. Teflon, which makes up the thin non-stick surface on frying pans
-compounds containing chlorine or bromine are more reactive under extreme conditions
-compounds that have iodine are quite reactive; they can be easily substituted with other functional groups
Properties of Nitro Compounds
-often insoluble in H2O
-inert to chemical attack unless under extreme conditions
-generally explosive
                Ex. TNT (trinitrotoluene & nitroglycerine)
-most smell pleasantly fruity
Alcohols
-have an –OH (hydroxyl) functional group
-naming: use the longest carbon chain containing the OH group & replace the ‘e’ ending in the parent hydrocarbon with ‘ol’
                -remember: always use the smallest # possible for the OH group even if the branched parts will get a higher # (ex. 4-methyl-2-pentanol rather than 2-methyl-4-pentanol)
                -if a molecule contains 2 or more hydroxyl groups, # both and add –diol, -triol, etc. endings
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-uAfmJqNusHE/TboVvn4mEdI/AAAAAAAAADw/l8X3MFnWNOQ/s320/clk0677c001.gifß 1, 2-ethanediol
Ex. butanol
http://www.chem.canterbury.ac.nz/letstalkchemistry/electronicversion/electronicversionnew/chapter05/Pix/butanol.png
-the longest carbon chain containing OH is 4 à butanol
Properties of Alcohol
-somewhat soluble in H2O: the hydroxyl (OH) group breaks off, but the hydrocarbon chain is often insoluble
-ALL alcohols are poisonous to an extent
                Ex. Ethanol: type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages
Ex. File:T-Butanol.png
Longest carbon chain w/OH: 3 à propanol

Some other types of alcohols:
File:Alcohol examples.gif
Aldehydes
-have a double bonded oxygen at the end of the chain
-follow regular naming rules & change parent chain ending to –al (do NOT confuse w/alcohols, even though they are pronounced the same)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/2/2f/20091203104613!Butanal-skeletal.pngbutanol
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Propanal-skeletal.pngpropanal
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/2-Methyl-2-propanal_structural_formulae.png2-methyl propanol

Ketones
-contain a double bonded oxygen that is NOT on either end of the hydrocarbon chain
-ending: -one
http://chemistry.uca.edu/faculty/isom/2450_pdf/multimedia/chime/ald_ket/images/3hexone.jpghexone
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Acetone-skeletal.png/120px-Acetone-skeletal.pngFile:Acetone-structural.pngacetone
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/2-Hexanone.pnghexanone
http://www.echinachem.com/UploadImage/FormulaImage/106-68-3.gifoctanone

Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones
-both: somewhat soluble in H2O
-aldehydes: quite reactive; easily turned or ‘oxidized’ into carboxylic acids
-ketones: rather non-reactive
http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/chem/faculty/pavel/Theory%20is%20fine.gif
Youtube links for extra help:

Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Alkenes and Alkynes? Really now? Do Intelligent Chemists Really Not Know How to Make Up More Exciting Names?

Alkenes, Alkynes, who cares? They're the same thing.

WRONG.

Even though they both form bonds that contain fewer Hydrogen atoms attached to Carbon atoms, THEY ARE VERY DIFFERENT!
Naming these compounds are relatively easy, as they follow the same rules as naming Alkanes. Just remember to change the ENDING to the appropriate one!

Let's start with Alkenes.

Alkenes-->contain one or more double bonds
-->classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons
-->CHANGE ENDING TO "-ENE"

eg. CH3-CH2-C=CH-CH3
                               |
                             CH3-CH3-CH3
            
                 2-propyl-2-pentene

*notice how the ending of the parent chain changed

Alkenes have a many possible structures (same), BUT have different geometrical shape
-->this is special to ONLY ALKENES called geometric insomers

Geometric insomers-->occur when double bond is formed, having side chains attached (top & bottom)
-->2 types:
                  -trans: (top&bottom, bottom&top)
                  -cis: same side (top&top, bottom&bottom)


So, practice what you've learned!
Draw these structures:

4-methyl-2-pentene
3-propyl-2-heptene








Now, for the Alkynes!
Alkynes-->contain one or more triple bonds (yes, now you use 3 LINES!!)
-->also unsaturated hydrocarbons
-->naming rules are still the same, but CHANGE ENDINGS to "-YNE"


 eg. CH3-CH-CH3-C(insert triple bond here)C-CH3
        |         |
       C    CH3
  
                   5,6-methyl-2-heptyne


It's simple...REALLY!


Make sure you do some extra practice from the textbook!!
Memorize all the prefixes (it'll help)!




Jialynn.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Organic Chemistry - May 26, 2011 - Isabelle Cheng

Isabelle Cheng
Block 2-2
Chemistry 11 Ms. Chen
Organic Chemistry
What is organic chemistry anyway?.....
Organic Chemistry:
introduction to the diverse chemistry of carbon
scientific study of the structure of carbon-based compounds and hydrocarbon
can vary from small to large
has a specific naming system 
different kinds of structures to represent a molecular formula
form chains of carbon atoms
Properties:
VLObject-788-021205011205.jpg

A carbon that has 4 bonds
VLObject-789-021205011205.jpg

A carbon atom that has 4 hydrogen atoms
VLObject-790-021205011206.jpg

A carbon-carbon bond
VLObject-792-021205011207.jpg

Branched Chain
VLObject-793-021205011208.jpg

Rings
Naming:
There are certain names for each molecular formula!
1 - meth
2 - eth
3 - prop
4 - but
5 - pent
6 - hex
7 - hept
8 - oct
9 - non
10 - dec 
You use these prefixes in the beginning and the endings for alkanes is “-ane.”
The formula is CnH2n+2, if you plug in the numbers and it doesn’t work then that means that it is not from the alkane group!
When looking at the structures: Always look at the longest chain and write the molecular formula from there!
For example:
propane.gif


It is called Propane because there are three of the longest chain. 
For the Alkayl group, they have a different formula and different naming system:
The ending is “-yl,” so an example would be methyl. 
For example:
img40.gif

This structure is called 3-methyl-pentane because the bond is on the third position and it is called methyl because it is from the alkyl group. It is called pentane because the longest chain has 5 of them. 
Extra facts: The sum of all valence e- of each atom in the molecular formula must equal the number of electrons in your Lewis Dot Structure.
Except for a few elements, ex. H, most elements want a full valence shell. 

Sunday, May 22, 2011

chemical bonding (by: mandy)

                                                         CHEMICAL BONDING
There are 3 types of chemical bondings: Ionic Bonding, Nonpolor Covalent Bonding, and Polar Covalent Bonding.
Nonpolor Covalent Bonding: electrons are shared equally
Polar Covalent Bonding: electrons are shared unequally
Ionic Bonding: electrons are transferred between two atoms

Electrostatic Force
Electronegativity: the measure of the ability of an atom to attract electron from other atoms.
Metals have LOW electronegativity
Non-metals have HIGH electronegativity
*The greater the difference of electronegativity, it is more likely to be Ionic Bond
      
           ENeg Diff. = | ENeg1- ENeg2 |

ENeg Diff. <0.5 (non-polar covalent)
ENeg Diff. 0.5 to 1.8 (polar covalent)
ENeg Diff. >1.8 (ionic)

London Forces














Polar Covalent Bonds

A molecule is polar if there is an imbalance with electrical charge. [This is called: Polarity]

Atoms with higher electronegativity (delta -)
Atoms with lower electronegativity (delta +)

For example:



Hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2.1
Oxygen has an electronegativity of 3.5
therefore, O, with the higher electronegativity is labelled delta- and two H are labelled delta+

Arrow should be pointing at the negative atom.





study hard!


Sunday, May 15, 2011

Electron Dots and Lewis Structures - Isabelle Cheng

Isabelle Cheng
Block 2-2
Chem 11 Ms. Chen
The Lewis Structure involves using dots. It is very simple and easy to understand!
Here are some examples!


Number of Valence Electrons12345678
ExampleHydrogenGroup I
(Alkali metals)
HeliumGroup II
(alkali earth metals)
Group IIIGroup IVGroup VGroup VIGroup VII
(Halogens)
Group VIII except Helium
(Noble Gases)
Lewis Structure
(electron dot diagram)


That is what Lewis structures look like and how the dots are formed with the symbol in the middle to identify which element it is. The purpose of the Lewis Structure is that it shows the valence electrons that are distributed in a molecule. Also there is a rule called the octet rule which is saying that most of the atoms want the electrons to form covalent bonds. This rule does not necessarily apply to all of the atoms. 
Here is an example of H20!
Lewis structure H2O
Here are some practice ones!
    H
              ● ●
NH4 + = H   ●     N ●    H
        ● 
  ● ●
                  H
The first step is to first draw 4 H’s because the element is H4.
Then you write a N in the middle with the surrounding H’s because it is the only element and it only has one. 
The third step is to then daw two dots for every H surrounding the N. 
You apply the same rules and the same procedure for the other elements.
Then that helps you get the Lewis Structure! 

Monday, May 2, 2011

Periodic Table Familes and Trends.

#trending, teehee.


Who knew the periodic table created trends?
They're such fashionistas!

That was just for laughs...

ANYWAY, here's a video that explains everything. (:
Enjoy.



     

Thursday, April 21, 2011

Electronic Configuration of An Atom: Does This Mean Anything To You? 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6...(by Bev)

The above was definitely NOT proper English.
It's actually something called Electronic Configuration.
Today, you're going to learn how to write "chemists' gibberish".
Looking forward to it?


What is electronic configuration?
-description of an atom's orbitals & how many electrons occupy each orbital
-helps to group & learn about the elements of the periodic table


recall: Niels Bohr suggested that electrons occur only in particular energy states - when an electron emits/absorbs a particular amount of energy, it will instantly jump to a different orbital


important terms to know:


-energy level: amount of energy that an electron is able to have
     'n' is the # of the energy level
          -for a given value of  'n', different types of orbitals are possible
               n=1     only s-type is possible
               n=2     s- & p-types are possible
               n=3     s-, p-, d-types are possible
               n=4     s-, p-, d-, f-types are possible


-quantum: the difference of energy of 2 specific energy levels


-ground state: when all the atom's electrons are in the lowest possible state (ie. stable, like a noble gas)


-excited state:  when all the atom's electrons are temporarily occupying an energy state greater than its ground state
     ex.  When an electron takes in extra energy, like a photon, or hits a neighbouring particle, it becomes excited.


-orbital: the actual area of space that an electron occupies in a specific energy level
     -4 types: s, p, d, & f
     -energy levels are not spaced apart evenly
     -each orbital is symbolized by a circle


-shell: group of all orbitals with the same n-value
     ex. 3rd shell: 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals


-sub-shell: group of orbitals with the same type
     ex. group of 5 3d-orbitals of the 3d shell



Type of subshell
# of orbitals
Max. # of electrons
s-type
1 s-orbital
2
p-type
3 p-orbitals
6
d-type
5 d-orbitals
10
f-type
7 f-orbitals
14


order in which the orbitals are filled:



Writing Electronic Configurations for Atoms


Neutral atoms:
-always begin using the LOWEST energy
-determine the # of electrons (recall: in a neutral atom, the atomic # is the # of electrons), then start at 1s, continuing to add until there are no more electrons
-each electron has an opposite spin classified by up & down arrows


potassium: 19 electrons
 

***NOTE: FOR EACH ORBITAL, DRAW ALL THE UP ARROWS FIRST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT BEFORE PAIRING THEM WITH THE DOWN ARROWS!!!***


Ions:
-negative ions: add electrons (equal to the charge) to the final unfilled subshell, starting from where the neutral atom left off
-positive ions: start with the neutral configuration & take away electrons from the OUTERMOST shell first


Exceptions


Why are you so surprised?!  There are always exceptions!!



Cr (Chromium gains stability with a HALF-FULL d-subshell)
we would predict: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s3d4      
but it is actually -->1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s13d5

Cu (Copper gains stability with a FULL d-subshell)
we would predict: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s3d9      
but it is actually -->1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6  4s3d10



Core Notation


-special type of electron configuration: core electrons are replaced by the nearest noble gas
     -usually take part in chemical reactions
-outer electrons: outside of the core electrons (ie. the noble gas)


How to write core notation


1. locate the atom & the nearest noble gas at the end of the period ABOVE the element (it is crucial to use the noble gas in the PREVIOUS row!!!)


2. replace the first part of the electron configuration (core) with the matching noble gas with the noble gas' symbol in square brackets


Carbon (6 electrons):


electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p2   <-- replace 1s2 with [He]


core notation: [He]2s22p2


a joke to end it off, as usual:


Tuesday, April 19, 2011

A Little Review and Some New Calculations To Feed Your Inner Chemist.

Remember the parts of the atom facts you learned A LONG TIME AGO!?!?!
Well, dig it all back out from the back of your brain.
Just kidding, I'll just do a brief review with y'all.


There are THREE subatomic particles: Protons (p), Neutrons (n), and Electrons (e-).
p and n are located in the nucleus and have about the same mass (ie. relative mass of 1)
e- has a very small relative mass of around 0 and is located in a cloud around the nucleus.

**Remember in a neutral atoms: #p = #e-  AND that an element's atomic # is also the # of p.


Ions occur when atoms gain or lose electrons during chemical bonding.
**Remember in ions: #e- = #p - ionic charge.

Negatively charged anions gain electrons (non-metals)
Positively charged cations lose electrons (metals)



What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number?
Though they both are acquired by adding the # of protons and neutrons, atomic mass is the mass that has the trailing decimals, while the mass number is a rounded mass.

Now you try:
How many protons, neutrons and electrons are in:
1) Strontium +2
2) Sulphur
3) Neon

Then...what are isotopes?
These are just variations of an element, and usually, they are the more dangerous types.
Remember isotopes are written including their mass number! (This differentiates isotopes from isotopes)
Isotopes have the same # of protons and electrons or is normal atom, BUT DIFFERENT NEUTRONS!!
ie. heavier atomic mass

Now, the NEW stuff steps in.
We're going to learn how to calculate the NATURAL MIXTURE OF ISOTOPES.
How do we know there are a few isotopes that are present? A mystical being came riding down from the sky and told this withered old man, of course.
NO, that is definitely NOT what happened.

 
Some fun with radioactive isotopes.



It's really simple, actually.
The decimals in the atomic mass signify an AVERAGE.
EUREKA, right?


Let's do a question together.
Given this information, calculate the average molar mass of Fluorine.

F-18: 36.89%
F-19: 14.73%
F-20: 9.06%
F-21: 39.32%

OK. First, we'll have to convert all of the percents into decimal numbers.
Then, multiply each isotope percentage to its respective atomic mass.

F-18: (0.3689)(18g/mol)= 6.6402g/mol
F-19: (0.1473)(19g/mol)= 2.7987g/mol
F-21: (0.0906)(20g/mol)= 1.812g/mol
F-21: (0.3932)(21g/mol)= 8.2572g/mol

Finally, the last step is to add all those masses together.
6.6402g/mol + 2.7987g/mol + 1.812g/mol + 8.2572g/mol= 19.50g/mol
**DONT FORGET SIG FIGS!


Written by Jialynn.

Friday, April 15, 2011

History of Chem (by:Mandy)

drop the math, and lets learn a bit about the history of chemistry.
here are some of the important historical chemists:

Aristotle believed matter was made of different combinations of earth, air, fire, and water Lavoisier, A.L. (1743-1794)Discovered nitrogen; studied acids and described composition of many organic compounds.

Dalton, John (1766-1844)He proposed atomic theory, stated law of partial pressure of gases. His ideas led to laws of multiple proportions, constant composition and conservation of mass.

Thomson, Sir J.J. (1856-1940)Research on cathode rays resulted in proof of existence of electrons. Won the Nobel Prize in 1906

Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937): Discovered that the atoms of the heavier elements, which had been thought to be irreversible, actually decay into various forms of radiation. Rutherford was the first to establish the theory of the nuclear atom and discovered rays: alpha, beta, and gamma. He also revealed the half-life of radioactive elements and applied this to studies of age determination of rocks by measuring the decay period of radium to lead-206. Have fun!

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

#stoichiometry calculations involving particles - moles - mass# by:mandy

Stoichiometry???
STOY-KEE-AHM-EH-TREE is a study of amounts of substances that are involved in reactions! lots of calculations involved. So, think Math!
what are the steps to calculationg the amounts od substances in a reaction?
1. write equation                                                
2.balance
3."road map"                                                               
4.calculations!
now, lets try an example:
step 1:
Mg + HCl --> MgCl2 + H2
since this reaction is not balanced yet, we'd have to preform step 2:
Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2
step 3:
Note that when we are making a "road map", substances CANNOT be diretly convert from grams of one compound to grams od another. Instead, we have to go through moles :)
grams (x) <--> moles (x) <--> moles (y) <--> grams (y)
final step *4:
6.0g H2 x 1 mol H2/2.02g H2 x 1 mol Mg/ 1 mol H2 x 24.3g Mg/ 1 mol Mg = 72.2g Mg
YAY! good job! that was the step by step calculation.